The National Flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a piece of right-angled cloth of sky-blue colour with a picture of a golden sun with 32 rays in the centre and underneath a soaring steppe eagle. The flagstaff has a vertical line of national ornament. The picture of the sun, its rays, eagle and ornament are gold. The width/length ratio of the flag is 1:2.
The Republic of Kazakhstan is a presidential democracy; a secular, stable and social state whose highest values are its people, their lives, rights and freedoms.
The golden and blue and sky-blue national emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a picture of a shanyrak (the cupola of a yurta) on a blue background, from which uyks like sun rays are being radiated towards the wings of mythical horses. Kazakhstan is written at the bottom of the emblem.
Population: 14,820.9 (official data as of January 1, 2002)
Major language: Kazakh, Russian
Religion: Islam, Christianity
Monetary unit: 1 Kazakh tenge=100 tiyn
Domain zone: .kz
The Republic of Kazakhstan lies right in between Europe and Asia, between 45° and 87° of East longitude, 40° and 55° of North latitude.
It stretches from the east of the Caspian Sea and Volga plains to the mountainous Altay and from the foothills of Tien Shan in the south and southeast to the West-Siberian lowland in the north. The size of the territory places Kazakhstan ninth in the world, after Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brasil, Australia, India and Argentina.
In the east, north and northwest Kazakhstan borders with Russia (6477 kilometres). In the south it borders with the countries of Central Asia: Uzbekistan (2300 kilometres), Kyrgyzstan (980 kilometres) and Turkmenistan (380 kilometres). In the southeast it borders with China (1460 kilometres). The total extent of Kazakhstan borders is nearly 12,2 thousand kilometres, including 600 kilometres along the Caspian Sea in the west.
Kazakhstan lies in the center of the European and Asian continents, and is approximately equidistant from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. More than a quarter of the land consists of a portion of the gentle steppes that stretch from central Europe to Siberia. The rest of the republic reflects the beauty of forests, mountains, rivers, lakes and reservoirs. The natural landscape is enhanced by thousands of plant and animal varieties found from the northern forest steppes to the high southern mountains.
Kazakhstan has the sharp continental climate. It is characterized by irregular distributions of precipitation in its different areas. In separate years spring stretches from the south to the north during 1,5-2 months. When it is spring sowing in the south, the north area is covered with snow and the blizzards storm frequently.
The land of Kazakhstan is rich by different soils. The greater part of forest-steppe zone is chernozem which turn to dark-chestnut, light-chestnut and brown soils in the south. There are gray-soil lands in the deserts and semi deserts replaced by the mountain soils then. Crossing the territory of Kazakhstan from north to south you can get into different climatic zones, so as various areas with its own flora and fauna.
Kazakhstan has rich natural resources. In short, 99 elements among 110 elements of the Mendeleev Periodic Table are found in the depths of Kazakhstan. For the present time 60 elements are extracted and used: the chromium ore, tungsten borides, phosphorites, molybdenum, bauxites, asbestos, manganese, coal, oil, gas, titanium, magnesium, tin, uranium, gold and other non-ferrous metals and minerals.
Kazakhstan’s population includes many ethnic groups with their own language and culture brought together through their history. The largest ethnic groups are Kazakhs and Russians. The main religions are Islam and Christianity.
The official language of Kazakhstan is Kazakh, a Turkic language. State organizations and local governmental bodies also use Russian. The government encourages citizens to study and speak several languages. Everybody has the right to use their native language and the right to choose their language for communication, study and work. This contributes to people of various ethnic origin and religions live and work peacefully in the country.
Almost 60 percent of Kazakhstan is urbanized, the highest level of urbanization among the republics in Central Asia. Almaty, the south capital, is the largest city with about 1.5 inhabitants. It is followed in size by Karagandy (436.000), Shymkent (360.000), Taraz (330.000), Astana (500.000), Oskemen (311.000) and Pavlodar (300.000).
The Kazakhs are an extremely hospitable people. If you come to a Kazakh home unexpected you will be received as if you had been invited. Since early childhood principles of respect of guests and older people as well as peacefulness and tolerance are instilled in every Kazakh and these are the national features of Kazakh culture and tradition.
Customs and traditions
Since ancient times the Kazakhs have carefully preserved and passed down the generations their tradition of hospitality, respect for the elders, peace and tolerance.
January 1 – 2 – New Year
March 8 – International Women Day
March 22 – Nauryz Meyramy
May 1 – Kazakhstan Nations Unity Holiday
May 9 – Victory Day
June 10 – Day of the capital
August 30 – Constitution Day
October 25 – Repiblic Day
December 16 – Independence Day
There are other religious holidays with varying dates: Ramadan Khait
Kazakh national cuisine reflects the nature of its people, its history, customs and traditions.
Since old times hospitality has been the most distinctive feature of the Kazakh people.
More information about Kazakh national cuisine >>>
Kazakhstan is a market-economy state. The national economic policy aims to create the conditions for the socio-economic development of the country.
The currency is the Tenge which is equal to 100 tyins. It was introduced on 15th November 1993.